HISTORY OF PERIANESTHESIA NURSING

HISTORY OF PERIANESTHESIA

History of PeriAnesthesia Nursing (Canadian and US)

The Beginnings of PACU:
1791

  • Early documentation of a recovery area in England

1860

  • Florence Nightingale placed patients in separate rooms after administration of anesthesia

1923

  • A 3-bed neurosurgical recovery unit located at Johns Hoskins Hospital in Baltimore

1940s

  • Realization that a patient first recovered from anesthesia, not the surge
  • Recognized the need for postoperative care areas located near the operating room to reduce deaths from respiratory failure
    immediately after surgery

1941

  • WWII patients undergoing surgery are placed in wards to receive postoperative care

1942

  • The first documented “Recovery Room” at St. Mary’s Hospital, Rochester, MN.
  • The anesthesiologist managed medical care of patients in the Post Anesthesia room

1950

  • The knowledge of Post Anesthesia complications grew
  • Surgical ICU and postoperative respiratory support developed
  • Hospitals established and equipped Post Anesthesia Recovery Areas to stabilize patients prior to transfer to other units
  • Benefits of early postoperative ambulation were acknowledged and accepted
  • Specialized education of staff begun
  • The new blood pressure manometer (sphygmomanometer) was used in patient monitoring

1960s

  • Modernization continued: anesthetic medications, technology, surgical techniques evolved
  • Nurses became more involved in issues surrounding development and staffing of PostAnesthesia Recovery areas
  • Increased ratio of RN staff to patients
  • Staff education was “On the Job Training”
  • Recovery Rooms were moved to be in close proximity to the Operating Rooms

1961

  • The first ambulatory surgery program was formed in Grand Rapids Michigan

1970s

  • Care in Recovery Room available 24 hours daily
  • “On call” staffing by registered nurses implemented after regular hours
  • Aldrete Discharge Discharge Score introduced to document patient readiness for discharge from Recovery Room
  • Outpatient Surgery Units established
  • CPR,BLS and ACLS certification requirements initiated for Recovery Room staff
  • Nurses actively organized by geographic regions to educate Recovery Room Nurses

1979

  • Nurses representing state/regional organizations met to discuss forming a national organization, sponsored by American Society of
    Anesthesiologists (ASA)

1980s

  • The Birth of ASPAN
  • Founding meeting of the American Society of PostAnesthesia Nurses (ASPAN)
  • In the mid-1980’2, ASPAN members were encouraged to promote a name change in hospitals from “Recovery Room” to
    “PostAnesthestic Care Unit” (PACU) to better reflect the type of care provided
  • Lighter anesthetics led to better recover of patients and they were ready for discharge quicker
  • The idea of Same day discharge was created

1981

  • First newsletter published in January (Marie Darcy, Editor). Newsletter re-titled Breathline in August (Anne Allen, Editor)

1982

  • First ASPAN National Conference held in April, St. Louis, MO.

1983

  • Released ASPAN Guidelines for Standards of Care

1985

  • American Board of PostAnesthesia Nurses Certification (ABPANC) incorporated
  • Established ASPAN’s Council of Past Presidents
  • Ontario PeriAnesthesia Nurses Association Formed: First president Doug Moore

1986

  • First issue of the Journal of PostAnesthesia Nursing (JoPAN) published in February (Anne Allen and Marie Darcy, Editors)
  • First Certified PostAnesthesia Nurses (CPAN) certification exam administered in November (American)
  • Standards of PostAnesthesia Nursing Practice published (American)

1987

  • Standards of PostAnesthesia Nursing Practice endorsed by ASA
  • Celebrated first PostAnesthesia Awareness Week (PANAW)
  • ASPAN Long Range Planning Committee visions a five year plan

1988

  • CPAN Day established as an ASPAN National Conference annual event

1989

  • Presentation of the first President’s Award
  • Meanwhile, ambulatory surgery centers proliferated due to legislative action, economics, hospital bed shortages, growth of
    laparoscopic and fiber optic technology and improved anesthetic medication’s

1990s

  • ASPAN Celebrates 10th Anniversary
  • During this time, the scope of practice was redefined to include ambulatory surgery nurses
  • Preadmission clinics were created
  • Education programs were updated and research goals identified
  • Throughout the decade, ASPAN increasingly sought to establish important professional liaisons with other professional nursing

organizations

  • Oxygenation monitoring became available postoperatively

1991

  • Awards for Outstanding Achievement and Excellence in Clinical Practice established
  • ASPAN Core Curriculum first published, with multiple subsequent revisions to present day
  • Education Provider and Education Approver status granted by American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC)

1993

  • ASPAN Foundation established

1994

  • First Volunteer Leadership Institute held in Richmond, VA to develop component leadership
  • Certified Ambulatory PeriAnesthesia Nurse (CAPA) certification exam administered for the first

time in November

  • For the next three years, ASPAN reorganizes with a long-term transformation plan. It acquires a

new management company, rebuilds resources and restructures the existing Board of Directors
into a Representative Assembly concept
1995

  • ASPAN Scholarship Program awards first scholarships to members

1996

  • Organization name changed to American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses (ASPAN)
  • Publication name changed to Journal of PeriAnesthesia Nursing (JoPAN) in June
  • Formation of the ASPAN Specialty Practice Group (SPG), Preoperative Assessment received first charter
  • Presented first Gold Leaf Component of the Year Award
  • First published National particulars daily National Conference newsletter  
  • Launched the ASPAN Web site

1997

  • ASPAN Board of Directors restructures and creates a Representative Assembly
  • JoPAN now available to members via on-line access
  • First annual ASPAN Component Newsletter Contest winners announced at National Conference
  • Ontario PeriAnesthesia Nurses Association (OPANA) surveyed their members regarding nationalization and certification

1998

  • ASPAN Standards of PeriAnesthesia Nursing Practice adds pediatric standards, preadmission

guidelines, Phase III, and ASPAN Position Statements regarding nursing issues for all phases of care

  • Representative Assembly meets for the first time at Philadelphia National Conference
  • Membership reaches 10,000 members across 40 components
  • National Association of PeriAnesthesia Nurses of Canada (NAPANC) Steering committee was established at the Manitoba
    Association of PeriAnesthesia Nurses conference

2000s:

  • Continued Achievement and a Silver Anniversary for ASPAN
  • ASPAN assumed self-management in May 2000. That fall, the Volunteer Leadership Institute remerged as an annual Component
    Development Institute with outreach intended to foster component leadership, education, research, clinical practice, and advocacy.  In 2008, the Website was redesigned to offer unprecedented member and public access to multiple ASPAN products.  The organization becomes increasingly recognized as a national & international leader and voice for PeriAnesthesia nursing practice.

2000

  • ASPAN Clinical Guideline for the Prevention of Unplanned Perioperative Hypothermia endorsed by ASPAN Representative Assembly, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA), American Association of Nurse Anesthetists (AANA), and in 2002 by American Association of Critical Care Nurses (AACN).  Evidence-based guideline revision occured in 2008.

2001

  • ASPAN convened PeriAnesthesia Pain and Comfort Conference

2002

  • Alberta-Southern Chapter (PANA-SAC) hosted 1st National founding meeting and Conference in conjunction with their provincial
    conference in Calgary. NAPANc letters of patent were granted on June 14 2002
  • National Association of PeriAnesthesia Nurses of Canada (NAPANc) was granted membership to the Canadian Nurses Association
    in 2002

2003

  • Visions of PeriAnesthesia Nurses Association of British Columbia (PANBC) were created by 3 BC RN’s
  • PeriAnesthesia Nurse Association of British Columbia (PANBC) hosted the 2nd NAPANc National Conference in Richmond, British
    Columbian in conjunction with their 1st provincial conference
  • ASPAN Pain and Comfort Clinical Guideline endorsed by the Representative Assembly
  • ASPAN Past Presidents’ Council awarded first Distinguished Service Award

2004

  • Breathline made available to members on-line
  • Ontario PeriAnesthesia Nurse Association (OPANA) hosted the 3rd NAPANc National Conference in Hamilton, Ontario in conjunction
    with their provincial conference

2005

  • ASPAN Evidence Based Practice Model was developed
  • PeriAnesthesia Nurses Group of Saskatchewan (PANGS) hosted the 4th NAPANc National Conference in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan
    in conjunction with their provincial conference
  • Up and Comers initiative launched to mentor future leaders

2006

  • Association of Nova Scotia PeriAnesthesia Nurses (ANSPAN) hosted the 5th NAPANc National Conference in Dartmouth, Nova
    Scotia in conjunction with their provincial conference

2007

  • PeriAnesthesia Nurses Association of Northern Alberta Chapter (PANA-NAC) hosted the 6th NAPANc National Conference in
    Edmonton, Alberta in conjunction with their provincial conference
  • ASPAN Foundation name changed to ASPAN Development  
  • Position Statement on PeriAnesthesia Safety approved by Representative Assembly
  • Dissolution of PeriAnesthesia Nurses Association of British Columbia (PANBC)

2008

  • Manitoba Association of PeriAnesthesia Nurses (MAPAN) ) hosted the 7th NAPANc National Conference in Winnipeg, Manitoba in
    conjunction with their provincial conference
  • Specialty Practice Groups (SPGs) grow in number to support member networking in specialized PeriAnesthesia practice domains  
  • Representative Assembly approves Position Statement on the Geriatric Patient and Position

Statement on Advocacy

  • National Association of PeriAnesthesia Nurses of Canada Standards of Practice 1st edition were published. Canada now follows
    their own set of PeriAnesthesia Standards. This is a monumental achievement for Canadian PeriAnesthesia Nurses.

2009

  • Ontario PeriAnesthesia Nurses Association (OPANA) hosted the 8th NAPANc National Conference in Toronto, Ontario in conjunction
    with their provincial conference
  • Reestablishment of PeriAnesthesia Nursing Association of British Columbia (PANBC)

2010

  • First PANBC Conference in British Columbia, “New Emergence in British Columbia”
  • PeriAnesthesia Nurses Association, Southern Alberta Chapter (PANA-SAC) hosted the 9th NAPANc National Conference in Calgary,
    Alberta in conjunction with their provincial conference

2011

  • PANBC  2nd Annual British Columbia Conference,  “Building Block in British Columbia”
  • Canadian Nurses Association (CNA)  acknowledged that our designated nursing specialty “PeriAnesthesia Nursing” would be
    moving forwards toward examination development in 2012
  • IPCAN 1st International Conference for PeriAnesthesia nurses was held in Toronto hosted by Canada.
  • Ontario PeriAnesthesia Nurses Association (OPANA) hosted the 10th NAPANc National Conference in Toronto, Ontario in
    conjunction with their provincial conference
  • National Association of PeriAnesthesia Nurses of Canada Standards of Practice 2nd edition were published

2012

  • PANBC 3rd Annual British Columbia Conference “Climbing the Mountain of Safe Patient Care”
  • CNA Certification Program welcomes PeriAnesthesia Nursing as its 20th TH Nursing Specialty Credential
  • Competency writing team met in Ottawa to prepare for Exam preparation for Certification
  • Association of Nova Scotia PeriAnesthesia Nurses (ANSPAN) hosted the 11th NAPANc National Conference in Dartmouth, Nova
    Scotia in conjunction with their provincial conference

2013

  • CNA Certification exam should be completed for writing in the spring of 2014
  • National Association of PeriAnesthesia Nurses of Canada Standards of Practice 3rd edition will be public
  • 2nd International Conference for PeriAnesthesia nurses (IPCAN) will be held in Dublin Ireland hosted by Ireland

2014

  • PeriAnesthesia Nurses Group of Saskatchewan (PANGS) will host the 12th NAPANc National Conference in Saskatoon,
    Saskatchewan in conjunction with their provincial conference

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Additions made via Canadian dates and content)

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